News From Indian County 07 01 2016 E Edition Page 1

JULY 2016 NEWS FROM INDIAN COUNTRY: www.IndianCountryNews.com PAGE 1 Pipeline walkers raising awareness in Wisconsin, Page 6 Musician, Colville chair, Jim Boyd passes on, Pages 18/19 Canada $3/U.S. $2.00 www.IndianCountryNews.com July 2016 - Vol. XXX No. 7 Artifacts: Hunters of artifacts collecting early history By DOUG WILSON HULL, Ill. (AP/The Quincy Herald-Whig) A rrowheads, spear points, stone knives and ax heads in Eddie Johnsons collection bear silent witness to people who lived in the Mississippi River bottoms for thousands of years. Johnson, 81, is better than most at translating those stories written in stone or pottery. I found my first arrowhead when I was a little kid, 5 or 6 probably, Johnson said. His interest in those artifacts and his knowledge of the cultures they represent took a quantum leap forward a dozen or more years later. During a year of study at the University of Illinois, Champaign, Johnson sought out Dr. John McGregor a professor of anthropology at the school. Once he peeled himself down from the ceiling, we got along pretty well, Johnson remembers. Johnsons stories of artifacts found on his family farm near Hull meshed with McGregors experience as a well- respected author of books on Native American cultures in Arizona and Western states. The two became friends and learned from each other. In 1956 he came down and looked at my home place and dug in the woods right next to our ground and spent the summer digging, Johnson said. The archaeologist found pottery and other items from the Black Sand culture - dated to the early woodland period of about 1,000 BC - as well as items distinctive to the Hopewell culture such as mound building and other activities dating to around 300 BC. That transition from one culture to another was a major find for McGregor. It was an indication that people had lived at the site for thousands of years. Stone working techniques and pottery styles advanced enough to show that new ideas - new cultures - took hold. News From Indian Country 8558N County Road K Hayward, WI 54843-5800 By BOBBY CAINA CALVAN BROWNING, Mont. (AP) L ea Whitford remembers the first time she set foot in Montanas Capitol in Helena after a four-hour bus ride from the Blackfeet Indian Reservation. She and her high school classmates marveled at the ornate rotunda before entering a large office to meet one of the state's most politically important men, the governor. They took turns sitting at his desk, and Whitford sensed the power coursing through the grand building and big chair. Now a state senator, she wants more of her fellow Blackfeet to let go of their indifference and discover the influence of politics - to experience government at work as she did 35 years ago. I wish they could feel the opportunity and the empowerment, she said. For generations, tribal nations fought to tear down the barriers that kept them from having a voice in the government the U.S. Cavalry imposed upon the western frontier. Now, Native American activists are increasingly turning their focus inward, working to persuade their fellow tribal members to seize the ballot box as a weapon against oppression. At powwows, advocates fan out with voter registration cards. Across reservations, tribal leaders implore their people to engage in the political process. In classrooms, they lecture their young about making a difference. The Native vote could be especially crucial in Democrat Denise Juneaus bid to become the first American Indian woman in Congress. Juneau, the states two-term superintendent of schools, is one of nine Native Americans running for Congress, from North Dakota to Arizona. They Natives turning focus inward for political empowerment include two incumbents: Reps. Tom Cole and Markwayne Mullin, both Republicans from Oklahoma. By most accounts, Juneau will need strong Native American voter turnout to boost her chances of defeating the incumbent, Rep. Ryan Zinke. She will need the help of tribal members like Edward Baker, a 54-year-old from the Rocky Boy Indian Reservation who registered to vote for the first time at a recent Missoula powwow. I have to set an example for my frandchildren, Baker said amid tribal members in traditional regalia. The sound of drumbeats filled the auditorium. As Baker spoke about wanting to see more Native Americans in power, Juneau emerged from a crowd and asked for his support. He agreed. Zinke and other Republicans also have been courting Native Americans, particularly in the states coal country, where Crow tribal leaders have been more open to pro-coal Republicans. The Native population is hardly a monolithic group, but many tribal members have been known to align with Democrats. Others, particularly on poverty- stricken tribal lands, still have a deeply ingrained mistrust of the whole system. Native Americans werent given the right to vote until 1924, when the U.S. Lea Whitford - Blackfeet Photo from Montana Legislators - meic.org See Tribes turning focus, Page 5 He found some bones, seven to nine burials, Johnson said. Scientists dated the bones to around 200 B.C., and a bone expert found evidence of some diseases that archeologists had thought were only spread widely in the Americas with the arrival of European explorers. Johnsons health keeps him from hunting for artifacts now. He has a nephew who does the leg work these days. After the ground has been worked and after a rain, thats the best time to look for arrows, Johnson said. As for the best places to look for artifacts, that all depends on the location and conditions. Johnson said much of the Mississippi River bottoms land had villages and camp sites over so many years that artifacts can be found over a large area. Farm ground that is tilled still yields artifacts, but undisturbed land can be productive too. The land where McGregor established a dig was in a wooded area where soil had been undisturbed and still had artifacts and human bones. Collectors should document when and where they find artifacts. Tags attached to artifacts, or numbers and letters printed on the items, can be cataloged to keep a record. Significant finds also can be reported to universities or historic societies. Artifact hunters also should get permission from landowners. A lot of them trespass. The artifact they pick up belongs to the person who owns the ground, and theyre just stealing, Johnson said. For many the joy of finding an artifact is its own reward. Others sell the artifacts. In this June 7, 2016 photo, longtime arrowhead collector Eddie Johnson points out various aspects of his collection in his rural Pike County, Ill., home. Johnson has been collecting arrowheads since he was a young boy. Photo by Phil Carlson/The Quincy Herald-Whig via AP See Hunter of artifacts, Page 5

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